Nature and environment


Geographical location, relief

  It is located on a plain, from 60 km of Nagyv árad, the center of Bihar County and from 7 km of Érmihályfalva; the village Tarcsa is intercepted by the E671 national road. The parish is situated on the eastern bench of the river Ér, full of swampy spots and the maximum altitude is 123 m .

  Tarcsafalva is also situated on the eastern bench of the Ér but far from the main roads. It can be approached by Érmihályfalva on the E671 highway or by the by-pass of Tarcsa which is at a distance of 4- 5 km .

  Éradony is located at 3 km from the center of the village, it can be approached from the E671 highway, which is a cart-road of 1 km .

  The medium temperature in a year is 11 °C ; the specific flora is the steppe with wood-spots. This swampy area was dry once, today we can hardly detect the drouth; its specific flora is the reed, sedge and rush.

  Its soil is good for the growing of the cereals as here is a sandy soil.


Water resources

  From the eastern part of the village flows the river Ér; on the area of the village there are two artificial thermal lakes, the thermal water is of 76 °C . It is a touristic point, but it is not exploited today.

  Water occupies a land of 224 ha of the area of the whole village.

The natural and protected area

  - On the verge of the village at about 1 km of the E671 highway there is moorland which has a specific flora and fauna, the so called “Filmy” world which exists, thanks to a natural reservation, with the typical landscape of the Valley of the Ér.

  - The restorations of the water-system according to the original landscape (the moorland before the desiccation); for these reason the community asked for the help of some specialists.


Waste management

  According to the production-functions, waste can be classified as: natural, from the green site and from the streets. There is no industrial waste, as there is no industrial production here.

  The gathering of waste is just partially solved in this location.


  - The organization of the gathering of waste on the whole area of the village

  - The ecological education of the population and the organization of some programs for the pupils for their education

  - The contribution of the school and the local administration

  - Involving the local youth and the organizations of the youth in the grooming activities of the area

  - The importance of the conscious selective gathering of waste

  - The development of the strategy concerning the handling of waste

  - The severe interference of the local administration for the sake of the legal handling of waste, the liquidation of the illegal junkyards

  - The marketing of the gathered selective waste: in the case of paper, glass, metal and domestic waste and the organization of the selection of waste, for example of plastic in the micro regional field.

  - The ability of knowing and using the processes of rehash

  - The rehash of the organic waste


Geographical data of Adoni

  Éradony is a small settlement of Érmellék, it is placed between Nagyvárad and Nagykároly, at about a few kilometers from the Hungarian border-line. Érmellék is a specific region of the Partium; it is connected – first of all – to its famous poet Ady Endre, as there is no one who wouldn't know his poem entitled „From the Ér to the Ocean”.

  There is a soggy, moorish area in two counties, in Bihar and in Szatmár, which is called the Plain of Ér. This plain is laying in a tubby valley which can be found between the river Kraszna and the river Berettyó. In the formation of the valley the river of Szamos , Tisza and Kraszna had an important role. The tubby shape of the Plain of Ér correlates to the geological deep structure of this land. Here in the depth there are the remainings of the ancient, 250 million year-old Mountain of Hercinia. The rupture of this shivered, crystal structured mountain is to be found right above the Érmellék. The brook called Ér, springing from the wood called Szekeres, took possession of this tubby, deserted valley. Before the drainage of the Plain of Ér the local people characterized the water of Ér as not being a river, or a channel, not even moorland, but it is a mixture of each of them. The name of this brook “Ér” appeared even in the 13 th century in some charters, and the land-name “Érmellék” appeared at first in the 15 th century. Even Anonymus had mentioned the brook of Ér as Humusoer. It also appeared in the documents of the Karolyn family (1338 – 1 st Volume, 128.1) as "Erwyze fluvius" and then as "Eer fluvius". The name “Érmellék” as a land-name appeared first in 1445 in the documents of the order of Lelesz – mentioning the border of Éradony – as "Ermellek terrae arabilis". People from Érmellék have no unified economic and ethnical traditions. The most important thing that unified these people, what made them spiritually and intellectually united people from the Érmellék was water, reed, the moorland and the frequent interdependence throughout their history. That's why we call the settlements of the Plain of Ecsed and Kraszna as places of the Érmellék, just like the villages of the hills from Tasnád, the region of the hills from Szalacs-Székelyhíd and the settlements of the plain near Nagykároly, as well as the plain of the river called Ér. The specific ecological physiognomy of the Érmellék was characterized by this moorland, for many years.

  The problem of the regulation of the river Ér has already occurred in the 19 th century. According to the plan there would have been a fairway in there. The difficulties of the 1 st World War and the years after it have overshadowed the problem of water and drainage. After 1930 the problem of water occurred again, but only in local directions. But even these plans were destroyed by the 2 nd World War. In 1960 The Public Water Committee accepted a general drainage-plan. In 1965 they had the final decision about how to solve the problem of the area with water of Érvölgye of 54.181 ha. The conservationists suggested creating a few reservations. The planners neglected these suggestions, thus instead of these reservations we gained an agricultural land of 40-50 ha. But we've lost the wonderful flora and fauna which enriched the Érmellék. The reed, the sedge and the rush still exist in some tussocks. But the specific plant of the Érmellék, the so called “kolokan” exists only in our memory. The same thing happened with the birds from here which were of as many kind as in the Delta, once.

  Fishing broke off; the “boat” with a flat bottom – one of the main means of transport in the Érmellék – has got out of water.